Hydrogenated Oils

Learn About Trans Fats:

The Food and Drug Administration has declared that there is no healthy level of  partially hydrogenated oil in the diet and has ordered food companies to disclose trans fat amounts on food labels by January 2006.  At least 30,000 and as many as 100,000 cardiac deaths a year in the United States could be prevented if people replaced trans fat with healthier nonhydrogenated polyunsaturated or monounsaturated oils

New York Times

New York City passes trans fat ban

NEW YORK - The Board of Health voted Tuesday to make New York the nation's first city to ban artery-clogging artificial trans fats at restaurants -- from the corner pizzeria to high-end bakeries by July 2008.

McDonald's has broken their promise to cut trans fat from their recipe. Burger King, Wendy's, Applebee's, Krispy Kreme also use  partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHO)

Secrets of the Edible Oil Industry 

By Mary Enig and Sally Fallon

Modern-day diets high in hydrogenated vegetable oils instead of traditional animal fats are implicated in causing a significant increase in heart disease and cancer.


The irony of Gotto's letter is that De Bakey, the famous heart surgeon, co-authored a 1964 study involving 1,700 patients, which also showed no definite correlation between serum cholesterol levels and the nature and extent of coronary artery disease.10 In other words, those with low cholesterol levels were just as likely to have blocked arteries as those with high cholesterol levels.


Most animal fats - like butter, lard and tallow - have a large proportion of saturated fatty acids. Saturated fats are straight chains of carbon and hydrogen that pack together easily so that they are relatively solid at room temperature. Oils from seeds are composed mostly of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

These molecules have kinks in them at the point of the unsaturated double bond. They do not pack together easily and therefore tend to be liquid at room temperature.


The technology by which liquid vegetable oils could be hardened to make margarine was first discovered by a French chemist named Sabatier. He found that a nickel catalyst would cause the hydrogenation (the addition of hydrogen to unsaturated bonds to make them saturated) of ethylene gas to ethane.

However, most of the trans isomers in modern hydrogenated fats are new to the human physiology. By the early 1970s, a number of researchers had expressed concern about their presence in the American diet, noting that the increasing use of hydrogenated fats had paralleled the increase in both heart disease and cancer.

The unstated solution was one that could be easily presented to the public: eat natural, traditional fats; avoid newfangled foods made from vegetable oils; use butter, not margarine.

About the Authors:

Mary G. Enig, PhD, is an expert of international renown in the field of lipid biochemistry.She has headed a number of studies, in America and Israel, on the content and effects of trans fatty acids, and has successfully challenged government assertions that dietary animal fat causes cancer and heart disease. Recent scientific and media attention on the possible adverse health effects of trans fatty acids has brought increased attention to her work.

She is a licensed nutritionist, certified by the Certification Board for Nutrition Specialists, a qualified expert witness, a nutrition consultant to individuals, industry, and state and federal governments, a contributing editor to a number of scientific publications, a Fellow of the American College of Nutrition, and President of the Maryland Nutritionists Association.

She is the author of over 60 technical papers and presentations, as well as a popular lecturer. Dr Enig is currently working on the exploratory development of an adjunct therapy for AIDS using complete medium-chain saturated fatty acids from whole foods.

She is the mother of three healthy children brought up on whole foods including butter, cream, eggs and meat.

Sally Fallon is the author of Nourishing Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet Dictocrats (with Pat Connolly, Executive Director of the Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, and Mary G. Enig, PhD), as well as of numerous articles on the subject of diet and health.

She is a founder of the Weston A. Price Foundation.

She is the mother of four healthy children raised on whole foods including butter, cream, eggs and meat.

Her publications may by obtained by contacting the Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation in San Diego, California, USA, on (619) 574 7763.

Trans-Fat: What Exactly is it, and Why is it so Dangerous?

By Dr. Joseph Mercola with Rachael Droege

Trans fatty acids, also known as trans fat, is an artery-clogging fat that is formed when vegetable oils are hardened into margarine or shortening. It is found in many other foods besides margarine and shortening, however, including fried foods like french fries and fried chicken, doughnuts, cookies, pastries and crackers. In the United States, typical french fries have about 40 percent trans fatty acids and many popular cookies and crackers range from 30 percent to 50 percent trans fatty acids. Doughnuts have about 35 percent to 40 percent trans fatty acids.

Trans fat is known to increase blood levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, while lowering levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), known as "good" cholesterol. It can also cause major clogging of arteries, type 2 diabetes and other serious health problems, and was found to increase the risk of heart disease. Many food companies use trans fat instead of oil because it reduces cost, extends storage life of products and can improve flavor and texture.

One problem with the use of trans fat is that food companies were not required to list it on nutrition labels so consumers had no way of knowing how much trans fat was in the food they were eating. Further, there is no upper safety limit recommended for the daily intake of trans fat. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has only said that "intake of trans fats should be as low as possible."

In a step in the right direction, the FDA has announced a final rule requiring food manufacturers to list trans fat on Nutrition Facts labels. The bad news is that the labels are not required until 2006 so consumers will need to fend for themselves when making food choices until that time.

While some foods like bakery items and fried foods are obvious sources of trans fat, other processed foods, such as cereals and waffles, can also contain trans fat. One tip to determine the amount of trans fat in a food is to read the ingredient label and look for shortening, hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated oil. The higher up on the list these ingredients appear, the more trans fat.

You can also add up the amount of fat in a product (saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated), provided the amounts are listed, and compare the total with the total fat on the label. If they don't match up, the difference is likely trans fat, especially if partially hydrogenated oil is listed as one of the first ingredients.

A few companies, like Frito Lay, Lipton, and Nestle have already taken steps to eliminate trans fat in some products. Nestle is removing it from Rolo and Toffee Crisp and possibly other products. Their competitor, Cadbury, is also considering removing trans fats from some of its products.

Recently a lawsuit was filed against Nabisco, the Kraft Foods unit that makes Oreo cookies, seeking a ban on the sale of Oreo cookies because they contain trans fat, making them dangerous to eat. The case was later withdrawn because the lawyer who filed the suit said the publicity surrounding the case accomplished what he set out to do: create awareness about the dangers of trans fat. Kraft is also among the companies making efforts to reduce trans fatty acid in their products.


Trans Fat Much Worse for You Than Saturated Fat

This study measured the effect of trans fat, found in fried foods and processed foods such as cookies, crackers and pastries, and of saturated fat, found in meat, butter and some dairy products, on blood vessel function and cholesterol levels.

According to the results, the trans-fat diet reduced blood vessel function by 30% and lowered HDL ("good")-cholesterol levels by about one fifth, compared with the saturated-fat diet. Previous research has shown that trans fats, like saturated fats, also raise LDL ("bad")-cholesterol levels.

This suggests that trans fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease more than the intake of saturated fats.
The major sources of trans fats in our diet are the ready-made baked goods and fried fast foods. These foods are not labeled, so the consumer does not know how much trans fat he gets.

Trans fat accounts for 4% to 7% of dietary fat intake in the US.

Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology July 2001


Saturated Fat Reduces Children's Allergies and Trans Fats Increase Them

A team of researches from Finland have found that diet may play a role in the increased incidence of allergies.

Their study found that children who eventually developed allergies ate less butter and more margarine compared with children who did not develop allergies. The allergic children also tended to eat less fish, although this dietary difference was less significant.

The study is not the first to suggest that certain types of fatty acids may play a role in the onset of allergic diseases. Polyunsaturated fats like those in margarine are thought to promote the formation of prostaglandin E2, a substance that promotes inflammation and causes the immune system to release a protein that triggers allergic reactions.

Thier results support the hypothesis that the quality of the fat consumed in the diet is important for the development of allergic diseases in children.

The possibility of preventing allergic diseases by supplementation or by changing the fatty acid composition of the diet of young children remains to be tested by clinical trials.

Allergy 2001;56:425-428


Long Article - Excellent info...



Margarine and Trans Fats Up Heart Attack Risk

Heart attack victims have significantly less omega-3 fatty acids, and more trans fats, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in their adipose (fat) tissue.

a.. Researchers analyzed 100 patients who had experienced a heart attack and a control group of 98, aged 45-75 years.

b.. The fatty acids composition of the fat tissue of all subjects was determined and their food intake data was obtained through an interview, using a food frequency questionnaire.

c.. Researchers found a strong correlation between the dietary intake and fat tissue content of the fatty acids studied.

Adipose tissue composition of the following fatty acids were all significantly lower in heart attack victims than the control group:
a.. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid)
b.. DPA (docosapentaenoic acid)
c.. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)

Adipose tissue composition of the following fatty acids were all significantly higher in heart attack victims than the control group:
a.. trans fatty acids
b.. linoleic acid
c.. alpha-linolenic acid

The authors note that the tissue concentrations of trans fatty acids, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in adipose tissue were strongly correlated, which indicates a common source, most likely margarine.

The authors conclude that intake of omega-3 fatty acids is inversely associated with risk of heart attack, whereas the intake of trans fats, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid are associated with increased risk.

Although not certain of the cause of this link, the authors note that " ... the increased risk may be connected to trans fatty acids or to some other factor associated with margarine consumption."

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition August, 2000;54:618-625.

Health Risks from Processed Foods and The Dangers of Trans Fats

Dr. Mary Enig Interviewed By Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D.

Mary G. Enig, Ph.D., a nutritionist widely known for her research on the nutritional aspects of fats and oils, is a consultant, clinician, and the Director of the Nutritional Sciences Division of Enig Associates, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland.

She received her PhD in Nutritional Sciences from the University of Maryland, College Park in 1984, taught a graduate course in nutrient-drug interactions for the University's Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences, and held a Faculty Research Associateship from 1984 through 1991 with the Lipids Research Group in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry.

Dr. Enig is a Fellow of the American College of Nutrition, and a member of the American Institute of Nutrition. Her many years of experience as a "bench chemist" in the analysis of food fats and oils, provides a foundation for her active roles in food labeling and composition issues at the federal and state levels.

Dr. Enig is a Consulting Editor to the "Journal of the American College of Nutrition" and formerly served as a Contributing Editor to "Clinical Nutrition." She has published 14 scientific papers on the subject of food fats and oils, several chapters on nutrition for books, and presented over 35 scientific papers on food and nutrition topics.

She is the President of the Maryland Nutritionists Association, past President of the Coalition of Nutritionists of Maryland and was appointed by the Governor in 1986 to the Maryland State Advisory Council on Nutrition and served as the Chairman of the Health Subcommittee until the Council was disbanded in 1988.

I first learned of Dr. Mary Enig's research from a 1978 report in the Federation Proceedings. We met shortly after that, and since I had written about trans fats several times in Supernutrition, we had common concerns about the effect that these trans fats from processed foods were having. We were both concerned particularly about the misconception that processed margarine was better than natural butter.

In several visits by Dr. Mary Enig to the Solgar Nutritional Research Center I quickly learned that she was an exacting scientist who is not afraid to speak out and who supports good nutrition, not just going along with the establishment's party line.

While studying for her Ph.D. at the University of Maryland, often she would first respond with the "correct" answer that was expected, and then she would explain why new research indicated "alternatives," such as optimal vitamin and mineral nourishment, provided a better answer. It is not easy be credentialed by the "system," while your own research shows other facts.

In her 1978 report, Dr. Enig challenged the speculation concerning the relationship of dietary fat and cancer causation. She concluded that correlations between the increase in per capita dietary fat intake and total cancer mortality over a sixty-year period show significant positive correlations for total fat and vegetable fat, and negative correlation for animal fat.

That the cancer rate is higher when the amount of vegetable fat or total fat is higher in the diet, but the cancer rate is lower when there there is more animal fat in the diet. These findings were unpopular then as they are today, but they are still correct. It is convenient to blame everything on red meat and animal fat, and believe that vegetable oil is the great dietary salvation-even if it is partially hydrogenated. At least that is what the vegetable oil people would like everyone to believe.

Now, we are not saying that lots of dietary fat is good for you and that vegetables are not good. Eating vegetables, fruits and other whole foods is very desirable. However, that is not the same as eating partially-hydrogenated vegetable oils.

Americans eat too much fat (especially partially hydrogenated vegetable oils) and not enough fruits and vegetables.

The problem is that the typical American is not eating enough whole foods, but instead, is eating too much partially-hydrogenated vegetable oil-a fractionated food-that has been made into "funny foods" such as margarine or added to baked goods. Such "funny foods" are far differentthan real whole foods.

Hydrogenation ruins the nutritional value of vegetable oils! Why would anyone want to ruin the nutrition value of vegetable oils? The purpose of hydrogenation is to solidify an oil so that it can be made to resemble real foods such as butter.

The hydrogenation process imparts desirable features such as spreadability, texture, "mouth feel," and increased shelf life to naturally liquid vegetable oils.

In the hydrogenation process, vegetable oil is reacted under pressure with hydrogen gas at 250 - 400oF for several hours in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel or platinum. However, this industrial process cannot control where the hydrogen atoms are added to the "unsaturated" double bonds.

Randomly adding hydrogen atoms to polyunsaturated fats converts natural food components into many compounds, some of which have never seen before by man until partially hydrogenated fats were manufactured.

Some of the several dozens of altered compounds created in the manufacture of partially-hydrogenated fats are "trans" fatty acids. Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats, much like amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

Other new compounds accidentally synthesized include fatty acids having double bonds translocated to new and un-natural positions, and various molecular fragments. Many of these altered compounds are detrimental to health.

Since "trans" fats are so detrimental to our health. permit me to briefly review the relevance of distinguishing between "trans" and "cis" fats before chatting with Dr. Enig. Recently, in the September issue, in the interview with Dr. Jim Clark and Mr. Lance Schilipalius, we discussed "trans" isomers of carotenoids. "Trans" means the same thing here. "Cis" and "trans" isomers refer to how identical atoms are added to double bonds.

When the atoms are added to the same side of the double bond, the compound is called "cis" and the molecule is bent because of the crowding of the atoms on one side.

When the atoms are added on opposite sides of the double bond, the compound is called "trans" and molecule is "space-balanced" and straightened. The shape of a molecule is important because enzymes and their substrates-the molecules enzymes act upon-must fit together like a key in a lock.

Dr. Enig will discuss this during the interview, but the important thing to remember is that natural polyunsaturated fatty acids are "cis" compounds and are bent. Partial hydrogenation produces many un-natural "trans" fats which are straight and not intended for use in the human body.

You don't have to understand the difference between "trans" and "cis," but it is important that you know that there is a difference because, as Dr. Enig will explain, it can affect your health.

Passwater: Dr. Enig, a lot of people are interested in "trans" fats now. You have been researching them since 1977. How are trans fats harmful to us?

Enig: More than a decade of research at the University of Maryland, as well as research that was being done at other institutions, showed that consumption of trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated (a process that adds hydrogen to solidify or harden) vegetable fats and oils had many adverse effects in health areas such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, immunity, reproduction and lactation, and obesity.

It is rather easy today to come up with a long list of these adverse effects from the published research done by many scientists around the world, as well as the researchers at the University of Maryland.

The reason there is so much recent interest is that during the past three years there has been a number of major research reports published in prestigious medical journals that caught the attention of the press.

These and earlier reports had shown, for example, that consumption of trans fatty acids lower the "good" HDL cholesterol in a dose response manner (the higher the trans fat level in the diet, the lower the HDL level in the blood) and raise the atherogenic lipoprotein(a) in humans as well as raising the "bad" LDL cholesterol and total blood cholesterol levels by 20-30 milligram-percent.

These studies have usually been shown in independent non-industry studies. Perhaps the most significant event though was the report from researchers at Harvard University, who evaluated more than 85,000 women in a long-term prospective study and found that there was a significantly higher intake of trans fatty acids in those individuals who developed heart disease.

As regards to the question of cancer, trans fatty acids induce adverse alterations in the activities of the important enzyme system that metabolizes chemical carcinogens and drugs (medications), i. e., the mixed-function oxidase cytochromes P-448/450.

The initial research in this area was done by the Maryland group in collaboration with the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, and was followed by the more extensive evaluation that I did for my Ph.D. dissertation; several groups around the country and the world also reported the same or similar results. Several groups around the world reported a higher intake of partially hydrogenated fats in those individuals who have developed cancer.

Both primate and human studies have shown inappropriate handling of blood sugar; trans fatty acids decrease the response of the red blood cell to insulin, thus having a potentially undesirable effect in diabetics. The primate research was initiated at Maryland in collaboration with the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the National Institutes of Health, and the human research is from the University of Pittsburgh and quite recent.

One major concern is that trans fatty acids adversely affect immune response by lowering efficiency of B cell response and increasing proliferation of T cells. This was shown in research done at Maryland using a mouse model and although there are reports from clinicians that there are problems of immune dysfunction in humans it still needs to be evaluated systematically in humans.

Recent research from outside the U. S. has indicated that trans fatty acids interfere with reproductive attributes and of concern is the finding that trans fatty acids lower the amount of cream (volume) in milk from lactating females in all species studies including humans, thus lowering the overall quality available to the infant. The latter research was done at Maryland by my colleague Dr. Beverly Teter.

Basically, trans fatty acids cause alterations to numerous physiological functions of biological membranes that are known to be critical for cell homeostasis, e.g., appropriate membrane transport and membrane fluidity, and these fatty acid isomers produce alterations in adipose cell size, cell number, lipid class and fatty acid composition.

Passwater: Now that trans fats are becoming of more interest, the term may still just be a buzz word to many of our readers. Would you explain just what are trans fats? Where do they come from? How are they formed?

Enig: To understand what trans fatty acids are you have to understand what fatty acids are. Fatty acids are basically chains of carbon with a carboxyl group (COOH) at one end that can react (e.g., combine) with another molecule.

When fatty acids are in fats or oils they are combined with glycerol in the proportions of three fatty acid molecules to one glycerol molecule and they form triacylglycerols or in common terminology, triglycerides.

Fatty acids come in different chain lengths ranging from three carbons long (propionic acid) to 24 carbons long (lignoceric acid). These fatty acids are either "saturated" (with an adequate number of hydrogen atoms) and chemically stable, or they are "unsaturated" (missing adequate hydrogens) and chemically unstable.

If a fatty acid is missing two hydrogens, it is called a monounsaturated fatty acid, and in place of the two hydrogens, the adjacent carbons "double" bond to each other.

If the fatty acid is missing four or six or more hydrogens, it is called a polyunsaturated fatty acid, and it is even more unstable than the monounsaturated fatty acid. Because the double bonds in naturally occurring plant oil fatty acids are curved with a "cis" configuration, the fatty acids cannot pack into a crystal form at normal temperatures so their presence produces a liquid oil. Saturated fatty acids have a straight configuration and can pack into a solid crystal at normal temperatures.

If the unsaturated fatty acids are altered by partial hydrogenation to straighten the chains so that they have some of the physical packing properties of saturated fatty acids they have had their "cis" double bond changed to a "trans" double bond and they turn a technically mostly unsaturated oil into a solid fat.

The trans fatty acids are the same length and weight as the original "cis" fatty acid they were formed from, and although they have the same number of carbons, hydrogens, and oxygens they are shaped differently in space.

The term that is used is that they are "isomers." The problem arises when a large number of the trans fatty acids are consumed from foods and they are deposited in those parts of the cell membranes that are supposed to have either saturated fatty acids or "cis" unsaturated fatty acids; under these circumstances the trans fatty acids essentially foul up the "machinery."

Although the trans fatty acids are chemically "monounsaturated" or "polyunsaturated" they are considered so different from the "cis" monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids that they cannot be legally designated, e.g., monounsaturated for purposes of labeling. Most of the trans fatty acids produced by the partial hydrogenation process are chemically monounsaturates.

There have always been small amounts of one kind of trans fatty acids in the human diet from the ruminant fats (dairy, sheep, goat, deer, buffalo, antelope, etc.) because the microorganisms in the rumen try to get rid of the polyunsaturated fatty acids that are found in the plant foods eaten by these animals.

In the early days of trans fatty acid research, the researchers assumed that the trans fatty acids found in ruminant fats were no different than those produced by partial hydrogenation in the factory.

But the studies showed that not only was the amount much smaller (e.g., the fat in butter might be 2-3% of the ruminant trans), the effect on the "machinery" in the cell membranes was not different than without the trans. Yet all studies feeding the trans produced by partially hydrogenating the vegetable oils showed the adverse effect on the cell "machinery."

Passwater: Why are trans fats a problem?

Enig: The various mechanisms through which the trans fatty acids disrupt function are related in part to the ability of trans fatty acids to inhibit the function of membrane related enzymes such as the delta-6 desaturase resulting in decreased conversion of e.g., linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid or arachidonic acid; interference with the necessary conversion of omega-3 fatty acids to their elongated tissue omega-3 fatty acids; and escalation of the adverse effects of essential fatty acid deficiency.

This latter effect was shown especially by the work of Dr. Holman and his colleagues at the Hormel Institute at the University of Minnesota, the other effects have been shown by many researchers including the University of Maryland researchers.

Passwater: What were your early findings and what got you interested in this area of research?

Enig: My initial published research in 1978 when I was at the University of Maryland showed that trans fatty acids, which were increasing in the food supply at the time and which had not been catalogued in any of the food data tables, were the very factors that explained the positive statistical relationship between the increase in cancer mortality and vegetable fat consumption in the U. S.

It was clear from the literature that once the trans fatty acids were identified as products of partial hydrogenation and studies were engaged in, there were a number of earlier researchers who questioned the biological safety of the trans fatty acids viz a viz their relationship to both cancer and heart disease.

In fact, Dr. Ancel Keys had originally claimed that the partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with their trans fatty acids were the culprits in heart disease. This was in 1958, and the edible oils industry was very swift in their squelching of that information; they shifted the emphasis to "saturated" fat and started the phoney attack on meat and dairy fats.

Passwater: What have others added to your findings?

Enig: As you have noted in some of your writings, we at the University of Maryland were not the first to raise the issue of trans fatty acids and adverse health effects; Dr. Fred Kummerow from the University of Illinois, Dr. George Mann from Vanderbilt University, and Dr. Edward Pinckney with the American Medical Association had sounded the alarm many years before my plunge into the foray.

In fact, I had drawn heavily on the research findings of Dr. Kummerow and the informative writing of Dr. Mann when I first started to investigate what was known about health effects of trans fatty acids at the time. Our research findings have been duplicated by others, but more importantly other independent researchers have extended and explained many of our findings and concerns.


Dr. Lawrence Dewey

Hydrogenated Oils-The Silent Killers

68 Year Old Tom Smith Knows

by David Lawrence Dewey©

October 15th, 1998 - All Rights Secured

Hydrogenated oils and trans fatty acids are silent killers



Note: On Tuesday, Oct. 20th, 1998, Oprah Winfrey's show with Dr. Bob Arnot and other researchers commented about the link between hydrogenated oils and breast cancer. Studies show there is a 40% increase in breast cancer in women eating hydrogenated oils. They also presented evidence concerning flaxseed oil and how by adding this to your diet reduces tumors by 50%. To get a transcript, call Harpo Productions at (312) 633-1000. There is a charge for the transcript. The National Cancer Research Institute has just released a warning concerning this recent study.

Hydrogenated oils and trans fatty acids are silent killers

Research studies show conclusively these deadly oils cause non-insulin dependent type II diabetes, or hyperinsulinemia. This is a disease which can eventually burn out the pancreas and cause insulin dependent diabetes. These changed molecular oils dramatically increase the risk of coronary heart disease, breast cancer, other types of cancers and auto immune diseases. Over 100 research studies show how harmful these oils are to the human body. However, these findings have been largely ignored by the mass media and the FDA. In addition, the Commercial Edible Food Industry has suppressed these research findings for sometime. Why? Money and lots of it! Food processing companies and the companies that own the patents on this process would lose billions of dollars if they had to change their method of food production of hydrogenating oils. The main reason oils are hydrogenated is that the hydrogenation of the oils act as a preservative. This leads to increased shelf life of products and less returns or spoilage of products. But at what cost is it to the human body?

The human body needs the type of essential fatty acids that mother nature has provided. Hydrogenated oils are molecularly changed oils that are toxic to the body. Soon after food production companies started using hydrogenated oils, substantial increases in several diseases occurred within a few years. In particular was a new disease which the medical profession had to name because they did not know what was causing it. It was not the normal type of diabetes but a new type. This new type of diabetes was named diabetes type II. Over the last fifty years since the introduction of hydrogenated oils, this disease has increased over 1000%. Over 90% of the foods produced today contain hydrogenated oils. On my website is a listing of contact information for food production companies, your Congressman and Senators. I urge all of my readers to write, fax, call these food companies and your elected representatives to stop the usage of hydrogenated oils in food production.

Why the body needs essential fatty acids

Mother nature dictates very simply the proper nutrients the human body needs for proper functioning. Through thousands of years of genetic evolution to our environment, the body has changed in how it absorbs, metabolizes and utilizes nutrients obtained from natural foods. Essential fatty acids are very important nutrients the body needs for many reasons. Dr. Joanna Budwig, a West German biochemist was the first to shed light on the role of essential fatty acids. She has been nominated several times for the Nobel Prize in medicine and is recognized as the world's leading authority on fats and oils.

Essential fatty acids are the building blocks of fats. They play important roles within the human body by affecting almost every major organ, cell membrane production and immune system function. Natural occurring essential fatty acids have an electrical weight that changes the fluidity of cell membranes. This is very important on how healthy immune cells develop. When oils are transformed by the hydrogenation process, this electrical weight is changed in essential fatty acids. This affects the fluidity which causes cell membranes to "stiffen". Flaxseed oil is the best vegetable source of these natural occurring essential fatty acids. There are three important essential fatty acids needed by the human body. They are linoleic (omega-6 type), linoleic acid N (omega-4 type) and alpha-linolenic N (omega-3 type). There are 50 other various essential nutrients the body needs to function properly to produce good health.

The human body cannot produce EFA'S. It is dependent on acquiring them from vegetable or fish oils in the proper ratios. It is from these essential fatty acids that the body synthesizes long chain-fatty acids such as dihomogammalinolenic acid, (DGLA), apentaenoic acid, (EPA), arachidonic acid, (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA). These newly formed acids play a dual role. They form cell membranes which affect the function of the cells. There are also eicosanoids, substances that act as a cell to cell communicator. The research data shows that hydrogenated oils form trans fatty acids which the body simply does not know what to do with. The body does not synthesize them properly. If the human body does not acquire natural occurring essential acids, (non-hydrogenated oils), the body does not form healthy normal cells. Instead, abnormal cells are produced.

In North America, the diet is and has been sorely lacking for over 40 years in Omega-3's essential fatty acids. The western diet has been reduced to 1 part Omega-3's, (LNA,EPA,DHA essential fatty acids), to more than 12 parts of Omega-6's, (LA,AA). All of these fatty acids are needed in the proper ratio of (1) part Omega-3's to (4) parts Omega-6's. These naturally occurring essential fatty acids are also needed for the production of prostaglandins. These are hormones necessary for cell to cell biochemical functions such a energy metabolism, cardiovascular and immune system function health. Prostaglandins are also anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor hormones. Prostaglandins are part of the substances in our bodies called eicosanoids. Eicosanoids are hormones that regulate molecules in most forms of life. They do not travel in the blood like hormones, they are created in cells. Eicosanoids main function is to act as a delivery vehicle. They regulate the movement of calcium. This affects dilation and contraction of our muscles, especially the heart. They also regulate the inhibition and promoting of clotting, the regulating of digestive juices, and certain hormones. This in turn regulates proper diuresis, proper salt retention, and most important, PROPER CELL DIVISION AND GROWTH. If proper cell division and growth is lacking in the body, the end results are cancers or auto immune diseases. Diabetes falls into the later.

Prostaglandins are produced in the cells by the action of certain enzymes using essential fatty acids. There are two pathways of how the prostaglandins are used by the body. This is based on which type is absorbed by the body, either natural Omega-3 or Omega-6 essential fatty acids. Hydrogenated oils do not provide these. Without these natural occurring essential fatty acids, the body cannot produce these prostaglandins. The problem with most Americans is they don't eat enough of fish, the Omega-3 type oils. The western type diet provides more Omega-6 type essential fatty acids from oils. Consumers have been getting an improper balance of Omega-6's in the form of molecularly changed hydrogenated oils. The hydrogenation process also forms trans-fatty acids which are harmful to the human body based on substantial research studies worldwide.

What are hydrogenated oils and what is the process?

When and why were they invented?

The first patent for the hydrogenation process was in 1903 by William Norman. The first patent for hydrogenated cottonseed oil was in 1911. This is the same year that Proctor and Gamble came out with Crisco oil. Crisco was acombination of hydrogenated palm and cottonseed oil, mixed with lard and animal fats. People then were not purchasing it, so P&G started giving it away, literally. The patent was purchased by a major food producing company. In 1937, a new patent was filed by a Dr. Ellis working for a major oil company. He improved the process by separating certain fats for commercial use. Since then, additional patents have been filed for different methods of these processes. These patents from 1976 to present can be found at the U.S. Office of Patents and Trademarks on the internet. Prior to 1976, patent searches must be done to find the original patents. In 1911, Mazola oil, a salad and cooking corn oil was introduced. In 1914, most of the companies removed any remaining animal fats in the oils they were producing and started using vegetable oils completely. Until this time, people were at least getting some essential naturally occurring fatty acids because of the animal fats. After 1914, the population began getting trans-formed essential fatty acids that became trans-fatty acids in their foods by the introduction of hydrogenated oils. In 1957, margarines began to out sell butter.

During the process of hydrogenation, hydrogen atoms are moved to what is called the opposite side of the double bond of the molecular structure of the fatty acid in the oil. Click here to see the molecular change in graph. This newly formed molecular configuration of the fatty acid, ( a changed carbon molecular structure of the fatty acid which the genetics of the body does not recognize) has been named "trans", meaning "on the other side of." Trans-fatty acids alter the normal transport of minerals and other nutrients across cell membranes. It weakens the protective structure and function of the cell. Hydrogenation gas is fused into the oils using a metal catalyst, aluminum, cobalt, and nickel. Without the metals, the hydrogen could not be fused into the oils. All are toxic metals to the body. This fusion takes place under pressure at temperatures of 248-410 degrees. Another words, the oils are changed molecularly. When you compare this changed essential fatty acid, which has now become a trans- fatty acid, it matches the same molecular structure of Stearic Acid. One of the uses of Stearic Acid is in the making of candles. It makes candles hard. Could this have the same affect on the human body in the form of hardening of arteries? In addition, by hydrogenating oils, more volume is produced. It increases the volume of the oil thus making more available to sell. Final result, more profit. However, its' main purpose is to increase shelf life of products. It is a preservative, and a deadly one.

During the late 1930's and early 1940's, a dramatic increase was seen in the following diseases. First was a disease that looked like diabetes, looked like diabetes, but was not caused by a deficiency of insulin. The medical profession was dumbfounded. All they knew was that a person produced enough insulin, but it was not effective in reducing sugar in the blood. They did not know what caused the insulin to be resistant. The medical establishment named this new disease non-insulin dependent diabetes, type II. The second and third diseases that increased dramatically were heart disease and cancer. This is the period also where new diseases which fell into the auto-immune classifications were being seen for the first time and named. The medical profession also did not know what was causing these new auto-immune diseases. They placed blame on the faulty genetics of the immune system. There is a correlation here. The increase of these new diseases began shortly after the introduction of hydrogenated oils in the food supply.

During 1973 to 1994, there was an increase of 364.3 various cancers to 462.0 various cancers per 100,000 population, a 22% increase. This information is available from the National Institutes of Health. More alarming is that from 1973 to 1992, an increase from 364.3 various cancers to 530.33 cancers per 100,000 population was seen. This was a 31% increase, an additional 9% increase from the previous years.

Heart disease is now claiming over 750,000 lives a year. The fusing of certain metals such as aluminum into the oils could very well be the reason why they are detecting high levels of aluminum in people. We all know about the link of aluminum to Alzehimers and cancer. We also know what lead poisoning does, especially to children. Non radioactive cobalt, the kind used as a catalyst in these oils is a component of vitamin B12. Some studies suggest that too much of this type of cobalt can cause cell destruction and nerve disorders. In addition, the fatty acids have been changed molecularly in which the body doesn't know how to properly metabolize them. Hypercholesteremia, ( high cholesterol or triglycerides) is a early warning sign that you will develop hyperinsulinemia. This disease produces too much insulin. The insulin is not effective in reducing sugar in the blood.

At the turn of the century, there were 2.8 diagnosed cases of diabetes and its' associated diseases. In 1949, this figure jumped to 16.4 per 100,00 population. this is a 585% increase in 50 years. In 1985, there were 36,969 deaths caused by diabetes. In 1995, there were 59,085 deaths caused from diabetes according to the National Center For Health Statistics. In ten years, this is 59.8 % increase, or roughly 6% per year. This increase of deaths caused from diabetes cannot be blamed on genetics. It can't be blamed because of people having bad genes. When you compare the substantial increases in the death rates today as to death rates before the introduction of hydrogenated oils in the food supply, anyone can very easily see the correlation. Nor does it have to do with newer diagnostic means or treatments of the disease. Deaths are deaths.

Leading experts in the research of diabetes estimate that todays figures of diagnosed cases of diabetes are now hitting 20,000 cases per 100,000 population. In 1949, the criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes was changed because this new disease of insulin resistant diabetes had not yet been named. However, is it a true diabetes or a disease created by harmful oils?

UPDATE 11-20-2003

New study, October 2002, from Malaysia shows without question that trans fatty acids significantly raises LDL cholesterol and significantly lowers the good HDL cholesterol, thereby increasing risk of coronary heart diease. 


UPDATE 6-24-1999

Two additional studies done at Tufts University and

Harvard showing that hydrogenated oils/trans fatty

acids have Effects of Different Forms of Dietary

Hydrogenated Fats on Serum Lipoprotein Cholesterol

Levels and Trans Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart


The New England Journal of Medicine -- June 24, 1999

-- Vol. 340, No. 25- Effects of Different Forms of Dietary Hydrogenated Fats on Serum Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels


http://www.nejm.org/content/1999/0340/0025/1933.asp )

The New England Journal of Medicine -- June 24, 1999

-- Vol. 340, No. 25 - Trans Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease-



The Research Findings On The Toxicity of Hydrogenated Oils

Dr. Mary G. Enig received her PHD in Nutritional Sciences from the University of Maryland in 1984. She has become one of the leading authorities on the toxic effects on hydrogenated oils on the human body. She has published over 35 scientific papers. She and other researchers have presented the negative effects that hydrogenated oils and trans-fatty acids have on the human body.

The research facility, The Virginia Polytechnic Institute studied the effect of trans fatty acids on bone development. The study showed very undesirable effects. Dr. Martin Katan from Holland found that trans fatty acids lowers the lipoprotein (HDL) the good cholesterol and raises the lipoprotein LDL which is the bad cholesterol. Dr. Walter Willett, Chairman of Nutrition at Harvard Medical, has published a paper on a 14 year study involving 85,000 nurses. His research study clearly shows that people consuming trans-fatty acids have the highest rate of heart disease. Other researchers such as Dr. Henry Blackburn, professor at the University of Minnesota, Dr. William Castelli, Director of the Framingham Cardiovascular Institute have found the same findings.

Dr. George Blackburn from Harvard has published papers showing no increase in heart disease in those countries where most of the oil used is either coconut oil or palm oil that has not been hydrogenated. This counters the claims that have been made for years by many sources, such as the Commercial Edible Food Industry whose research facilities funded the misrepresented counter claims that coconut or palm oils are bad.

Dr. Mary Enig has shown that when McDonald's started using hydrogenated oils, trans-fatty acids rose in their oils from 5% to 42-48% of the content of the oil. Recently, McDonalds has started using oils that are only partially hydrogenated. This partially hydrogenating has cut the trans fatty acids in half to between 21-24% of content but to many researchers, this is still too toxic to the body. Most European countries limit trans-fatty acids to 4% in any food, some ban them altogether.

When Dr. Ancel Keys published a paper stating that hydrogenated oils were responsible for heart disease, the response from the threatened edible oil industry claimed that only saturated fats, like butter were the culprits. The oil industry also contended that they supposedly eliminated the problem by only partially hydrogenating the oils. This is interesting. Here is a food industry saying that regular saturated fats are the culprits, but yet they are changing from fully hydrogenated oils to partially hydrogenated oils. It is apparent that their own in house scientists have found what other researchers have been saying for years. This is almost identical to what the in house scientists for the tobacco companies did twenty five years ago, bury the facts.

Tobacco Giant Phillip Morris owns Krafts Foods

Did you know that Phillip Morris, the largest tobacco company owns Krafts Foods. Why have they suppressed their own findings? Could it open a pandora's box to lawsuits concerning diseases caused from hydrogenated oils? Research studies from many researchers have shown that there is no increase in heart disease when normal amounts of regular saturated fat are consumed. However, research has shown the ill effects of hydrogenated oils, whether they be fully or partially hydrogenated. Either type of hydrogenated oils are deadly to the body.

Statistics from the National Institute of Health show that people are not dieing from heart disease as often as they were three years ago. This does not mean that less people are developing heart disease. The reduced numbers in deaths are attributed to newer technology and drug treatment. The truth is that the statistics for diagnosed cases of heart disease has increased dramatically over the last 30 years according to Dr. Udo Erasmus, PH.D, a consultant to the fats and oils business. According to Dr. Erasmus, 15% of the population in 1900 died from heart disease. Today it is 44%. In 1900, 3% died from cancer. Today, it is 23%. This cannot all be attributed to gene defects. Heart disease has become a multi-billion dollar business. It benefits researchers funded by the NIH and heart speciality corporations treating heart disease and most handsomely, drug companies. No wonder no one wants to admit what the real research is showing. Dr. Edward Siguel, M.D. Ph.D, an award winning researcher, also found a definite correlation between hydrogenated trans-fatty acids and heart disease. Furthermore, his study found that people with the lowest trans-fatty acids had the lowest heart disease.

The latest findings from Harvard researchers published in November, 1997, state, "it's not the level of or amount of fat intake that increases heart attacks and heart disease, but the type of fats consumed, especially trans fatty acids." During the last twenty years, a substantial increase in the number of children and young adults having high cholesterol and triglyceride levels has been seen. Research shows that trans-fatty acids produced from hydrogenating oils, elevate cholesterol and triglyceride levels two-fold. The largest group of people developing heart disease is the 21-29 year old group. A dramatic increase of non-insulin diabetic disease has been seen in all age groups over the last 50 years. Mothers, pay special attention, even Attention Deficit Disorder, (ADD) is being linked to these deadly oils.


Lorenzo's Oil

Does anyone remember the reports about Lorenzo's Oil a few years ago? This was about a young child that had essential fatty acids metabolism problems. Lorenzo has an auto-immune disease called adrenaleukodystrophy, (ALD). The disease causes loss of myelin sheathing, the fatty covering on nerve fibers in the brain. The problem is caused by a defective gene that prevents the production of a protein that breaks down very long chain fatty acids, usually, lignoceric acid, hexacosanoic and nervonic very long chain fatty acids are the culprits. Approximately 15,000 children in the U.S. suffer from this disease, about 200,000 worldwide. These high levels of certain very long chain fatty acids are made from Omega-6 essential oils in the body. This disease is usually fatal. Keep in mind a healthy body needs all of these very long chain fatty acids for a myriad of reasons. Again, children with ALD are missing a protein that keeps all of the fatty acids at proper ratio levels with one another. But also keep in mind that too much of certain essential fatty acids, especially adulterated hydrogenated Omega-6 oils can cause high levels of certain very long chain fatty acids which then causes the disease states.

Thanks to Lorenzo's parents exhaustive medical research in the role of fatty acids, they had a research manufacture Lorenzo's oil to treat the child. Lorenzo's oil is made up of oleic acid and erucic acid. Erucic acid can cause serious health problems. ( I will discuss this later ). In addition, the erucic acid that was used in Lorenzo's oil made by the researcher over many months was refined to a point to remove most of the toxicity of (2) counter enzymnes that made erucic toxic and was only 1% of the mixture. Erucic acid is toxic to the body at 4%. The human liver cannot metabolize anything over 4%. This is not the case in canola oil, it can contain up to 2% of erucic acid. Stop and think about that a minute. Erucic acid is toxic at 4%, canola oil can contain up to 2%. In addition, there is the the problem with the genetically altered seeds let lose by Monsato that were not genetically altered problem. These seeds contains more erucic acid. In Lorenzo's case, his body was deficient in erucic to normalize/balance the other essential fatty acids. This was caused by a gene defect that normal healthy people do not have. So in Lorenzo's case, you have to keep this in mind as not to think I am double speaking later when I talk about the ill health effects of erucic acid primarily found in canola oil. Lorenzo's oil was finally proven to normalize the buildup of the very long chain fatty acids causing the disease. However a very important finding was later discovered. Research showed that it causes gross deficiency of Omega 3 and and lowers the platelet count. It is crucial that medical testing of red cell membrane fatty acids be performed so that application of the correct therapy is given to children with ALD. Omega 3 essential fatty acids in their normal state, are the buildings blocks of a healthy immune system that interacts with other organs such as the pancreas, liver and kidneys for good health.


Children With Adrenoleukodystrophy

Recently, (update 2002), it has been discovered that children with adrenoleukodystrophy are deficient in docasahexaenoic acid (DHA), a very long chain fatty acid. Docasahexaenoic fatty acid is made in the body from Omega 3 essential fatty acids. ( Olive oil, flaxseed oil, grapeseed oil ). Personally, I believe this is what helped Lorenzo because 90% of Lorenzo's oil is comprised of certain fatty acids from pure olive oil. Trials on the administration of doxasahexaenoic fatty acid derived from algae have begun in 2002, conducted by the Martek Biosciences Corporation to children with ALD. These findings about Lorenzo's oil only prove the importance of how unchanged natural essential fatty acids are needed for the building of normal and healthy cells. Lorenzo was in the process of dieing before Lorenzo's oil was perfected by the researcher. Lorenzo recently turned 24. Although severely disabled and is unable to do much more than blink his eyes and wiggle his fingers, he has surpassed doctor's projections for his lifespan by 14 years so far. Part of Lorenzo's treatment was that he was forbidden to eat any type of foods containing hydrogenated oils. Although Lorenzo's oil was not a cure for ALD, it did stop the rapid progression of the disease that would have eventually killed him in a few short months.

The synthesis of prostaglandins local hormones and enzymnes that control all cell to cell interactions within the body are completely dependent upon the ingestion of high quality, unaltered fatty acids. . The body requires specific essential fatty acids to create gastrointestinal integrity, bilipid membranes, hormones, neurohormones, prostaglandins and immune modulators, ( a healthy immune system ) all derived from essential fatty acids, ( a proper ratio of Omega3 and Omega6), and these fats must be supplied and trans fats avoided if modulation of the faulty metabolism is to be achieved. That is why hydrogenated oils and trans fats have been banned in New Zealand in all foods.

Recently, research ( in 2001), shows the addition of DHEA often further complicates the patient's chemistry rather than corrects the hormonal imbalance because the basic raw materials are missing, (Omega-3 essential fatty acids) and the ingestion of trans fats literally blocks fatty acid metabolism and hormonal production, thus causing a host of disease states, diabetes type II, cardiovascular disease, auto-immune diseases and the list does on an on. The following is for Physicians. BodyBio (45 Reese Road, Millville, NJ 08332, 609-825-8338) now offers clinicians appropriate biochemical, (red blood cell fatty acid testing), intervention by organizing and disseminating the medical literature into a format that has direct impact the upon the lives of individuals which can help the Physician in creating a better prognosis in the long term for those patients that are imprisoned in a myriad of degenerative conditions.

Studies Show These Effects Of Trans Fatty Acids On The Body

1:) Lowers the "good" HDL cholesterol in a dose response manner (the higher the trans level in the diet, the lower the HDL cholesterol in the serum);

2:) Raises the LDL cholesterol in a dose response manner;

3:) Raises the atherogenic lipoprotein (a) in humans;

4:) Raises total serum cholesterol levels 20-30mg%;

5:) Lowers the amount of cream (volume) in milk from lactating females in all species studied, including humans, thus lowering the overall quality available to the infant;

6:) Correlates to low birth weight in human infants;

7:) Increases blood insulin levels in humans in response to glucose load, increasing risk for diabetes;

8:) Affects immune response by lowering efficiency of B cell response and increasing proliferation of T cells;

9:) Decreases levels of testosterone in male animals, increases level of abnormal sperm, and interferes with gestation in females;

10:) Decreases the response of the red blood cell to insulin, thus having a potentially undesirable effect in diabetics;

11:) Inhibits the function of membrane-related enzymes such as the delta-6 desaturase, resulting in decreased conversion of, e.g., linoleic acid to arachidonic acid;

12:) Causes adverse alterations in the activities of the important enzyme system that metabolizes chemical carcinogens and drugs (medications), i.e., the mixed function oxidase cytochromes

13:) Causes alterations in physiological properties of biological membranes including measurements of membrane transport and membrane fluidity;

14:) Causes alterations in adipose cell size, cell number, lipid class, and fatty acid composition;

15:) Adversely interacts with conversion of plant omega-3 fatty acids to elongated omega-3 tissue fatty acids; Escalates adverse effects of essential fatty acid deficiency;

16:) Increases peroxisomal activity (potentiates free-radical formation)

17:) Increased breast cancer in women

18:) Increased heart disease in men and women

19:) Increases non-insulin dependent type diabetes



Why is it that the FDA ruled that trans fatty acids percentages don't have to be listed on food labels?

Hog Farmers Won't Feed Their Hogs Hydrogenated Oiled Foods

Dr. Russell Jaffe, MD, a noted medical researcher stumbled across the fact that hog farmers wouldn't feed trans fatty acids foods, or hydrogenated oiled foods to their pigs. The reason is because hogs die from eating foods containing these oils. When Dr. Jaffe contacted the U.S. Department of Agriculture concerning this, they admitted they had known about it but that it was not in their jurisdiction. When he contacted the Federal Drug Administration, they simply said they didn't have the time to investigate it. Isn't the FDA is suppose to be protecting consumers from toxic foods? Dr. Jaffe also published a report finding that cottonseed oil contains fatty acids similar to those present in rape seed. Rape seed oil was taken off the market. It caused severe illness and in some instances deaths because of its' toxic fatty acids to humans, dogs and pigs. There are some fatty acids in some plants that are very toxic to the human body. Dr. Jaffe found that when cottonseed oil is hydrogenated, not only does it change the molecular structure of this already toxic fatty acid, but it doubles the toxicity to the human body. Hydrogenated, or partially hydrogenated cottonseed oil is used by many food chains in frying french fries and other fried goods. Most bakery goods contain them.


How Do Trans Fatty Acids Cause Non-Insulin Diabetes?

The body makes protein from normal amino acids. Normal meaning amino acids which the body is genetically used to. Properly structured protein is needed for insulin to be effective in reducing sugar in the blood. Protein is also derived from fats. By consuming abnormally changed molecular essential fatty acids, abnormal proteins are produced by the body. The abnormal proteins cannot properly synthesize the insulin in its' metabolic state. The insulin eventually becomes ineffective in reducing sugar in the blood stream. Hyperinsuliemia is the end result. The body then starts producing more and more insulin to control sugar while at the same time becoming more ineffective in controlling blood sugar. This has been directly linked concerning prostaglandins.

Prostaglandins are made from essential fatty acids. However, there are two kinds. Good prostaglandins and bad ones. The bad ones cause cell inflammation which causes several diseases such as diabetes, breast cancer, coronary heart disease and degenerative arithritis. The good prostaglandins reduce cell inflammation. Research by researchers at the Division of Science, Northeast Missouri State University have shown that the central mechanism for pancreatic insulin production is mediated by prostaglandins. It is not an autonomic response as once thought. Autonomic means that which a normal body responds to or makes. These findings have been confirmed by other research studies in Germany, the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston and by about half a dozen other researchers. Included in some of this research are in-depth studies of the roles of properly naturally occurring structured essential fatty acids and how they inter-relate in making not only the correct amount of insulin, but most importantly its' effectiveness in the bloodstream in reducing blood sugar and the productions of good prostaglandins.

Dr. Holman and his colleagues at the Hormel Institute at the University of Minnesota have shown that trans- fatty acids disrupt cellular function. They affect many enzymes such as the delta-6 desaturase and consequently interfere with the necessary conversions of both the Omega-6 and the Omega-3 essential fatty acids to their elongated forms. They consequently escalate the adverse effects of essential fatty acid deficiency. Dr. Lenore Kohlmeier in Finland completed a study on 700 women, (300 of them had breast cancer). The study included the analysis of the tissue fat cells of the women. Dr. Kohlmeier issued this statement, "women who have higher stores of trans fatty acids have a 1.4 times, ( approximately 55%) higher risk of developing breast cancer." Additional work by several researchers have also shown that trans fatty acids produced in the hydrogenation of oils process are the culprits. They destroy the good prostaglandins and increase the bad prostaglandins. This is why in the 1940's when non-insulin type II diabetes began to appear, the medical community was dumbfounded to what was causing it.


The Center For Science in Public Interest

Recently, the center analyzed 41 supermarket and restaurant foods purchased in seven cities across the country. The results were published in the September issue of the CSPI'S Nutrition Action Health letter. These are the findings:

FRENCH FRIES: The hidden trans fatty acids in McDonalds, Hardees and Arby's fries doubles the damage caused by their regular saturated regular fat counterparts. The fries at Burger King and Wendy's are even worse.

FISH: Red Lobster's Admiral's Feast Dinner contains a two day supply of artery clogging trans fatty acids

CHICKEN: Kentucky Fried Chicken has a full day's worth of trans fatty acid

BAKED GOODS: Dunkin Donuts Old Fashioned Cake Donuts contains trans fatty acids that more than doubles the damage its' regular saturated fat counterpart. Eating just one is like eating 8 strips of bacon as pertaining to the amount of damage it is doing to the arteries because of the trans fatty acids. Who eats 8 strips of bacon at one sitting? Campbell's Soups are loaded with hydrogenated oils, read the label on the cans. Most crackers and especially cookies also.

Countries In Europe Allow Only 4% Trans Fatty Acids In Foods - Some Ban Trans Fatty Acids Altogether

Many countries in Europe allow only 4% of trans fatty acids in any foods made with hydrogenated oils, some ban them altogether. Do these countries know something we don't? Some countries like Denmark have banned hydrogenated oils for over 40 years. It is interesting that Denmark has the lowest diagnosed rates of heart disease, cancers, breast cancer, diabetes, auto-immune diseases than any other country in the world. What is even more interesting is that they consume more saturated fat in the form of dairy products. Again, do they know something we don't? No, we know it, we're just not paying attention to the research studies. According to Dr. Enig and others, the American diet contains 10-44% of these trans fatty acids. Some individuals because of what they eat are consuming as much as 60 grams of trans fatty acids a day, or roughly 2 times the recommended normal fat content that a person should consume daily. Dr. Frank Sacks, MD and Karin Michels, M.S. M.P.H. of the Harvard Schools of Public Health issued a statement in February, 1995 in the New England Journal of Medicine. He stated, "American food manufacturers are still manipulating our foods in a way that current scientific research shows that trans fatty acids compromise health. Furthermore, the lack of information on trans-fatty acids on food labels does not allow one to make an informed decision or choice." Recent studies show that as little as 4% of these trans fatty acids can cause these disease processes. This could open food companies up to lawsuits from people with these diseases. This is no different than what has happened in the tobacco industry lawsuits. Why did it take the FDA ten years to finally issue the mandatory warning on cigarette packets that cigarette smoking is dangerous to your health from the warning that it may be dangerous to your health? The same principals, politics and lobbying from the tobacco industry to keep themselves out of lawsuits for years are at play here. It is all about money and the FDA has gone along with it. It's very simple. 10 - 44% of trans fatty acids in foods are deadly to the human body.


How To Get Hydrogenated Oils Off The Market

The best way is the strategy that Ralph Nader has used several times. Boycott the company or the product. The best way to get the attention of the primary source. The primary sources are the food production companies, better yet, your local grocery store. Confront your local grocery store manager.

On my website, is a link to a page listing the top 60 food companies with their addresses and email addresses. Address your letter to Chairman of the Board. Send them a letter stating that you will not purchase any further products from them until they ban the use of hydrogenated oils in their food production. Also included at the bottom of this column is a link page to the major news outlets. Write them, ask them why are they not reporting this. An most important, use the link to find your Senator or Congressman in Washington. Write them and demand that the FDA ban the use of hydrogenated oils like they have in Europe.

Interestingly, in 1998, the American Heart Association finally, ( after several years of ignoring the research data) issued a statement regarding this issue. The AHA stated in this statement, "In clinical studies, trans fatty acids or hydrogenated fats tend to raise total blood cholesterol levels. Fatty acids also tend to raise LDL ("bad") cholesterol and lower HDL ("good") cholesterol when used instead of fatty acids or natural oils. These changes may increase the risk of heart disease."Use naturally occurring, un-hydrogenated oil when possible. Look for processed foods made with un-hydrogenated oil rather than hydrogenated or saturated fat." The above statement is quoted from the following page on the AHA website. You can view the entire statement by the AHA on their site at

I cannot provide an auto link since the AHA legal department will not allow me to link to this web page. You'll have to copy and paste this into your browser to go there. Amazing how the food lobbyists use their influence. It would be interesting to know if and how much money non profit organizations like the American Heart Association receive from food corporations and or the food lobby group. However, you can read parts of this statement as a news item here. I am reporting this on this page as a news item. Evidently, under pressure the AHA finally recognized they could no longer avoid this issue.

I would also like to ask a favor from all of you reading this column. Print this column out. Make copies and mail it to friends. Makes copies and take it to your church. Email 20 of your friends to visit my site and read the column. Ask them to ask those 20 friends to email to 20 friends. You can use this FORM to send an email to your friend about this column. Post messages in the various newsgroups to visit my site and read this column. Unless people act today, future generations are going to be stricken with poor health they should not have. For years, you probably heard the old saying, "This causes cancer, that causes cancer, etc. etc." My response to that is, the research speaks for itself. Will you help to stop this pollution of our food supply for profit? Email me your thoughts and your support in this matter. Or post them on my message board. You can do something also.

Read the labels on packaged foods at the grocery store. You'll be lucky to find anything that doesn't have hydrogenated oils. By the way, crackers and cookies of any type are the worst of all. Bakery items, especially those that are fried like doughnuts are heavy loaded with these deadly oils containing high trans fatty acids levels.

Update 9-6-99 Health Alert

The new margarine spreads, BenecolT and Take ControlT contain partially hydrogenated oils and mono diglycerides. You may want to re-consider using these products despite their claims of reducing cholesterol. Mono-diglycerides are nothing more than hydrogenated oils. Read this research report about mono-diglycerides.

The Truth Needs To Get Out!

The Rest Of The Story, Thomas Smith

The Gentleman Who Cured Himself Of Hyperinsulemia

Caused By Trans Fatty Acids

Recently, one of my readers, 68 year old Thomas Smith, a retired electrical engineer from Loveland Colorado wrote me because of my latest health/nutrition column. He detailed in his letter how he had become diagnosed with non-insulin dependent diabetes, type II and how he had cured himself. He forwarded various research material to me in which I was totally amazed. Mr. Smith is one of the reasons why I wrote this column. Because I have studied quite intensively the role of the immune system and how essential fatty acids work in the body because of my own health problems, I understood what Mr. Smith sent. It was a call to arms. Something had to be done to get the truth out. Mr. Smith not only showed me the research findings of how this disease is caused by hydrogenated oils and trans fatty acids, but how to cure it. He should know he cured himself of diabetes type II. Thomas has put together a report, detailing the research and what he did to cure himself. Normally I don't do this in my column, but when I come across something so crucial that could benefit so many, I do what some term, sell a product in my column. But that is not what I am doing. I am trying to help save people from needless diseases and so is Thomas Smith. He is not asking a fortune for the report he has put together. It barely covers his costs for photo-copying and postage for this 150 report. If you are interested in the more detailed research and how Thomas cured himself of this man made disease, then send $25.00 to Thomas Smith, P.O. Box 7685, Loveland Colorado 80537. He can also be reached at 970-669-9176 for information. His report is about 150 pages, photo-copied both side and is worth its' weight in gold. It cites and lists over 100 scientific studies, and extensive bibliography, glossary and appendix. If you are suffering from any of the diseases talked about in this column, especially hyperinsulinemia, I'm positive that you will benefit in some manner by reading Tom's information in his report. You may also visit Mr. Smith's website at Healingmatters.com for more information and additional references pertaining to this serious food health matter. you can also email Mr. Smith at valley@healingmatters.com

HOWEVER, start today! Eliminate any foods containing hydrogenated oils from your pantry!

Mr. Smith and Mr. Dewey appeared on the Randy Johnson Show, Tuesday, November 3rd, 1998, 5PM - 7 PM Pacific Time, KOPE-FM Radio, Portland Oregon. KOPE is part of the Chancellor Broadcasting group and was carried over 80 other radio stations across the country. They talked over for two hours educating consumers and answering questions about these deadly oils.

I would like to pass this product information on to you. And no I do not own stock in the company. There is only one margarine I have found that contains NO hydrogenated oils and only 2.5 grams of naturally occurring trans fatty acids. It is called Smart Balance EARTH. It is a new patented mixture of olive, soy, palm and canola oils. Even though it contains a small amount of canola oil, it is the lesser of two evils at this time because it is free of any hydrogenated oils and contains only 2.5 grams of trans fatty acids. The regular SMART BALANCE contains mono-diglycerides which I am advising by readers to stay away from. Mono-diglyerides in most instances are nothing more than hydrogenated oils. The more that oils are hydrogenated, the higher the trans fatty acids, as much as 60 grams. This is when adulterated oils become unhealthy with this high of trans fatty acids occurring because of the hydrogenation. Smart Balance EARTH has a low amount of naturally occurring trans fatty acids the body can cope with. Canola oil may not be healthy when used exclusively in your diet for cooking and frying. I'll explain this later in the column. Smart Balance EARTH total fat content is only 9 grams per serving. Its' calories per serving is only 90, 80 coming from fat. But here's the good news in this blend. Its' saturated fat is only 2.5g, its' polyunsaturated fat is 2.5g, but the monounsaturated fat is 3.5g. This is a very excellent blend of the correct essential fatty acids. And it tastes almost like butter. Now here is a food company that has it trying to get its' act together. I only wish they would eliminate the canola oil. Personally, I use butter, but for those that need to use margarine, this is the only margarine I recommend using. If your store does not carry it, tell them to. The company that manufactures Smart Balance EARTH is Heart Beat Foods Division, P.O. Box 397, Cresskill, N.J. 07626-0397.

Your health is in your hands. For years in my columns, I have said that you are only as healthy as what you eat. Well, the fat lady has sung, the horse has come in first, whatever you want to call it. The bottom line is the truth in the research studies. I know that I will be attacked by the commercial food lobby regarding this column. They will try every means to discount it. But all anyone has to do is read the research, it is there. We need to do something about this and today. Can I count on you?


There is much controversy over canola oil. There has been widely circulated emails on the internet that have distorted the facts about canola oil. This is not to dismiss other facts that canola oil may not be as healthy a oil as it has been claimed to be. Canola oil first began with Rapeseeds that were hybrinized to breed out toxic erucic acid which is known to be toxic to animals and humans. The primary use of erucic acid is as a precursor to another chemical, erucamide. Erucamide is used in the processing of plastic films, particularly for films made from the polymers polyethylene and polypropylene. These plastic films are used in a variety of applications such as plastic grocery and bread bags, and other plastic packaging. However, it was later genetically altered and this is where I have most of my concerns. To make matters worse, over 60,000 bags of these seeds were genetically altered in the wrong way and not approved for human use. They were shipped with the wrong gene! These seeds were planted, harvested and researchers are scared to death of the potential health threat they pose. The information is considerable, so you will need to read this report I have written concerning this controversy about canola oil. This site also has additional information concerning canola oil. www.karinya.com/canola.htm

The amount of canola oil that is contained in the Smart Balance margarine I recommended is not significant enough I feel to concerned about at this time. However, what does complicate the matter is the refining process that companies use for grocery store bought oils. They contain trans-isomers, (plastic like substances). All oils used for cooking should be expeller cold pressed unrefined oils. These usually can only be found at health food stores.

Here is a list of foods which have been scientifically documented in the International Food Microbial 20-211-226. They should be avoided because they are high inpleomorphic bacteria, yeast, fungus and mold and produce mycotoxins that have been documented to cause specific diseases and very specific organ lesions in both animals and in humans and should never be ingested and if any, only in very small amounts. Also, recent studies involving soybean oil, once also thought to be beneficial, may actually cause tumors.

My advise is this. Use olive oil, flaxseed oil, grapeseed, coconut or sunflower oil. Grapeseed oil has 50 times more anti-oxidant properties than vitamin E.


Coconut oil has been looked at negatively because of its' fat content. However, it actually helps the body to metabolize fatty acids better than any other oil. You can actually loose weight using coconut oil and it is great for frying chicken. It is one of the few oils that does not become rancid quickly if it is tightly sealed. Over 40 years ago, researchers said they found that feeding coconut oil to animals caused their cholesterol to rise. There was only one main problem, the oil was hydrogenated. We all now know that hydrogenated oils raise cholesterol and triglycerides. When one looks at the population in the Pacific Islands, Hawaii, these people have used mostly natural, un-hydrogenated, cold expeller pressed coconut oil, you find one of the lowest cholesterol levels and lowest incidence of heart diseases in the world. In addition, coconut oil keeps the skin smooth and young looking. In many recent studies, coconut oil acts as an antihistamine, anti-diabetic, anti-infective and even an anti-cancer agent. Why...it contains high levels of lauric acid, a powerful anti-viral substance which found only in women's breast milk. Pure, cold expeller pressed coconut oil is hard to find in the United States. It is hard, you can refrigerate it for months as long as the lid is kept on tight. Use it in salad dressing, recipes combined with olive oil


Refined oils available off the grocery shelf are as bad as hydrogenated oils. These oils are loaded with trans-isomers which are as bad as hydrogenated oils if not worse. Purchase un-refined oils! These will not have the pristine gold color that the refining process places into the oils. Natural oils are different colors in their natural state. Look for cold expeller pressed oils only, extra virgin olive oil is the same thing. And I cannot stress the use of grapeseed oil in baking bread and other baking needs more. Grapeseed oil is 50 times more anti-oxidant that vitamin E. Last But Not Least Concerning Soybean Oil

I have received many requests regarding the safety of soybean oil. The following column on my site, written by Sally Fallon & Mary G. Enig, PhD. As you know, Dr. Enig is the world's leading authority on oils. Newest Research On Why You Should Avoid Soy is material extracted from a book written by Sally Fallon & Mary G. Enig, PhD. You'll learn why this oil was marketed so heavily, how it causes thyroid problems, related cancers and other serious

UPDATE 11-20-2003



There are now two brands that do not contain hydrogenated oils. They are the Smuckers ALL NATURAL brand shown here, and the Laura Scudder brand, which Smuckers also makes. The Smuckers brand contains only 2 grams of saturated fat, 14 grams of polysaturated fat and only 150 calories per 2 tablespoons. You can find both at Walmart stores.

In addition, look for the Walmart brand of chocolate chip, oatmeal with raisin cookies. They are made with butter and molasses. Molasses is very healthy for the body.

A special plea to all Mothers...please get your children off peanut butter that contains hydrogenated oils, all cookies containing hydrogenated oils, all juices containing high frutcose corn syrup, all cereals containing hydrogenated oils, all food period that contain hydrogenated oils. You are setting the stage for your child to develop diabetes type II.

Leanne Ely, a Certified Nutrition Counselor has compiled over 100 healthy recipes which do not include hydrogenated oils. As I've always said, "We are what we eat" and Leanne also explains why is it so important to eat healthy in an easy and entertaining format. Have children? Leanne has recipes with vegetables that the most picky child will eat. Don't have much time? Leanne provides easy and quick delicious recipes. This is a must for your kitchen! 192 pages. You can write to Leanne at  anicwife@aol.com


Update 11-19-99

Finally, at last, the FDA is taking steps towards to require labeling of hydrogenated oils and trans fatty acids on foods labels.

"The nation's experience with the new food label has shown that it can be a powerful tool for consumers,'' FDA Commissioner Jane Henney said on November 12th in a statement. "By requiring information about trans fatty acids, this proposal should assist individuals in their efforts to reduce their risk of coronary heart disease.'' Consuming foods containing these oils are worse than eating foods with regular butter in them. Be sure to read my original column below when I first began reporting on these back in October, 1998. You will read research data from leading research facilities that show how deadly these oils are to the body.

The proposed rule would also allow manufacturers to label certain foods as "trans fat free.'' And products that call themselves low in saturated fat, low in cholesterol, "lean'' and "extra lean'' would also have to be low in transfat.

Hello...Walmart, grocery stores chains, McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Sara Lee, Marie Callendars, Krafts Foods, ( Kraft, by the way is owned by Phillips Morris Tobacco), Kentucky Fried Chicken, bread companies, and all other fast food places and restaurants...when are you going to stop manufacturing foods containing these deadly oils? I am calling upon all CEO's and Presidents of food manufacturing companies to stop the production of foods containing these deadly oils. It is time to read the writing on the wall so to speak. I bet you are not eating this stuff you are shelling out to the unsuspecting public! I urge all my readers to write, email, fax these executives, demanding that these oils be removed from the food supply.


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